Freedom of Navigation and the Environment


The US has long maintained that freedom of navigation (FON) for warships in foreign 200-nautical-mile Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) is essentially “absolute.”

  • Mark J. Valencia
  • IPP Review

China and some other countries disagree and have placed some restrictions on the activities of foreign warships and aircraft in their EEZs.

Kole 7gBut the US is undermining its own position by placing restrictions on its own military’s activities, and by extension those of foreign militaries, in its own EEZ.

Military activities in EEZs were a controversial issue during the negotiation of the text of the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) and…

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