The past decade has seen considerable change in Russia’s Middle East policy, with greater involvement in regional crises and engagement in good relations with key countries and non-state actors.
Russia’s policy at times converges with Turkey’s, and at other times challenges it.
Turkish-Russian relations have survived several crises, the most severe being in November 2015 when Turkey shot down a Russian jet along its border with Syria.
Neither Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan nor his Russian counterpart Vladimir Putin are easy leaders. Both have big…