The evolution of Turkish-Russian relations

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The past decade has seen considerable change in Russia’s Middle East policy, with greater involvement in regional crises and engagement in good relations with key countries and non-state actors.

Russia’s policy at times converges with Turkey’s, and at other times challenges it.

Arab News 1a Green brTurkish-Russian relations have survived several crises, the most severe being in November 2015 when Turkey shot down a Russian jet along its border with Syria.

Neither Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan nor his Russian counterpart Vladimir Putin are easy leaders. Both have big…

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