The Nansen passport: the innovative response to the refugee crisis that followed the Russian Revolution

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The triumph of revolution in Russia in 1917 brought an end to the 300-year old Romanov dynasty and the empire over which it ruled

The collapse of the German, Austrian and Ottoman war effort in 1918 precipitated the end of the remaining continental European empires.

In each instance, imperial dissolution went hand in hand with the formation of new states.

Vuv 2bThe Russian Civil War, between 1918 and 1921, led to an exodus of people who opposed the Bolsheviks who had seized power in November 1917.

In Europe’s new nation states, minority ethnic…

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