Monthly Archives: July 2001


Socrates was a Greek philosopher who lived between 470-399 B.C. He turned Greek attention toward questions of ethics and virtue. Although Socrates was not a scientist, his way of questioning to find out answers laid a foundation for the way that science works today. Picture of Socrates The Bettmann Archive Socrates spent much time in the Athens marketplace (the Agora) where he held conversations with townspeople. He was known for exposing ignorance and conceit. Despite having many followers, Socrates was ... Read More »

Xunzi (Hsün Tzu, c.310—c.220 BCE)

Xunzi, along with Confucius and Mencius, was one of the three great early architects of Confucian philosophy. In many ways, he offers a more complete and sophisticated defense of Confucianism than Mencius. Xunzi lived toward the end of the Warring States period (453-221 BCE), generally regarded as the formative era for most later Chinese philosophy. It was a time of great variety of thought, comparable to classical Greece, so Xunzi was acquainted with many competing ideas. In reaction to some ... Read More »